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Issue

Jan - June
2009
 

Dear colleagues

Welcome to the latest edition of the CNP-eNotes, a newsletter dedicated to presenting the activities of the Centre for Non-equilibrium processes, founded by IPB-CNP-FP6 project. In this newsletter, we summarize the recent scientific activities and developments within our Centre. Since this is the latest edition of the CNP-eNotes, we bring you a brief selection of achievements accomplished during the last three years. The newsletter also includes information on publications, lectures and upcoming conferences on plasma physics and related disciplines.

One of the goals of this newsletter was to encourage the physicists around the world and particularly those from the West Balkan countries to increase participation in collaborative projects and the benefits thereof. A number of meetings and panels have been carried out with our collaborators but of special note are the visits of senior scientists with the expertise with the equipment that was being purchased. This was of great importance for us since the program of our investigation has covered the actual manufacturing technologies and physical processes of interest for their applicability in the development of integrated circuits.

Improvement of the global and local visibility of our Centre and its promotion into a leading experimental centre in West Balkans was one of the key activities. We proudly announce that the 5th EU-Japan Symposium on Plasma Processing and two pre-conference workshops within the SPIG conferences on 2006 and 2008 on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment were organized by our Centre. These meetings have attracted more than 40 invited speakers from the leading centres for plasma processing in the world. Three special volumes of the Institute of Physics UK Conference Proceedings with invited and review papers from the conference and workshops have been published online and are available for download.

Young researchers have been engaged within the Centre and have had an opportunity to start their research careers. They have completed their BSc-MSc theses in the Center and started their PhD studies. Most of them have already published their first research publications. Our new PhD students are featured in this edition.

More than 40 papers have been published in leading international journals during the last three years. The full list of papers, invited lectures, chapters in books and contributed papers at the international conferences will be placed at our website. Our presence at international conferences which can be seen by the number of the members of our group has been significantly improved.

Please note, we are still open for collaboration. Below is the list of our research areas and if you are keen to join us on our journey through the mysterious, rich and diverse world of plasmas you are more than welcome.
  

 
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New Book of Review Articles!
Online version of Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas, Vol. 2, published as a follow-up to the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science is now available for download as volume 162 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Editors would like to thank all workshop participans for contribution to the book of review articles Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas. We hope that we will see you again as participants or speakers at our next Workshop.
See the Table of contents >>>
 
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Anouncement
It is a great pleasure to inform you that our Centre of Excellence will organize the 20th Europhysics Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases in 2010. ESCAMPIG will take place in Novi Sad, Serbia between 13th and 17th of July. We would like to welcome you to this event!
Further information about the conference could be found on a special website.


Prof. Zoran Petrovic together with COE members are co-organizers of two international workshops:

ICPIG Workshop: Nonequilibrium phenomena in ion, electron and positron transport in gases: Data needs and applications
GEC Workshop: Advances in the Kinetic Description of Low-Temperature Plasmas: Applications to Modeling and Simulation
 
 
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Future activities in 2009
Forthcoming invited lectures and papers by the members of the group:
2nd International Workshop on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2-3 July - Zoran Petrovic
ICPIG, Cancun, Mexico, 13-18 July - Gordana Malovic
ICPIG Workshop A, Cancun, Mexico, 13-18 July - Olivera Sasic
25th International Workshop on Low Energy Positron and Positronium Physics & 26th International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, Toronto, Canada, 29 July-3 August - Ana Bankovic
2nd International Conference on Advanced Plasma Technologies & 1st International Plasma Nanoscience Symposium, Piran, Slovenia, 29 September-2 October - Zoran Petrovic
GEC Workshop on Kinetic Modeling of Plasmas, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA, 20-23 October - Sasa Dujko
3rd Workshop & Training Program in Low Cost Plasma Technology Applications, Cairo, Egypt, 7-12 November - Zoran Petrovic
 
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Highlights of PIC modeling
Within the subject of PIC modeling, rf breakdown, etching we have achieved a functional integration of a Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) code with LSPro code for modeling of the etching evolution profile, with application to nanoelectronic devices.
At the first stage, the angular and energy distribution functions of particles arriving to the wafer are determined using the PIC/MCC code. Then, evolution profile in the process of plasma etching is simulated using our 3D code based on the sparse field method for solving level set equations. The path of particles in the trench is treated by the Monte Carlo method since the space charge effects are included. The obtained simulation of unique 3D view profile evolution have already been published in 5 leading international journals and presented at several invited lectures at international conferences.
The PIC/MCC code with the adjusted secondary emission model has been used for modelling of a gas breakdown during dc, rf and combined discharges, not only at standard gap sizes but also for microgaps. As a result of these investigations 7 papers have been published in leading international journals. They have also been presented at several invited lectures.
 
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Highlights of transport of positons in gases
A variety of new kinetic effects never observed in the electron transport have been found in the transport of positrons in gases. The negative differential conductivity (NDC) is observed only in the bulk drift velocity with absolutely no sign of it in the flux drift velocity. It was found that the difference between these two drift velocity components is two orders of magnitude large for Ar and H2. The main explanation of these kinetic phenomena lies in non-conservative nature of positronium formation process. The transport properties of positrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields have also been studied. With increasing magnetic field the mean energy is shifted towards higher values of reduced electric field (E/N) and its magnitude is significantly lowered. The NDC effect is also shifted to higher E/N values. We made the first steps towards modeling of the Penning-Malmberg-Surko positron trap. The thermalization times for different gases have been calculated and we have explained why nitrogen is much better choice as a buffer gas in positron traps than hydrogen which have shorter thermalization time. Together with our colleagues from the Australian National University in Canberra we have undertaken a program to measure the total cross section and positronium formation cross section for positrons in water. The next step is a detailed investigation of positron transport in water for the biomedical applications.
 
 
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Highlights of breakdown and time development of gas discharges at low pressures
Time resolved technique is used for recording the spatial structure of the discharge by an ultra-fast ICCD camera. This technique allows us track the development of all regimes of gas discharges at low pressures. Measurements have been performed in plane parallel geometry for several gases: Ar, CF4, CHClF2, H2 and water vapor. Special attention is paid to the development of oscillations within the discharge, constricted regime and cathode fall formation. Hollow cathode discharge in Ne was studied with the same technique. The discharge spatial structure has been clearly related to the current-voltage characteristics. Future steps include constructing a new discharge chamber with better control of working conditions – pressure and cathode dimensions. That will open a possibility to study scaling laws significant for hollow cathode discharges of micrometer dimensions having in mind their high applicability. International cooperation with groups from France, Hungary and North Ireland is in progress.
 
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Highlights of DC microdischarges
We have constructed a parallel plate microdischarge chamber with possibility to change interelectrode distance and pressure in order to investigate the scaling laws of discharges with microscopic dimensions in a wide interval of conditions. The chamber also allows to record radial profiles of the discharge through a transparent anode by sensitive ICCD camera. Thus, we are able to measure effective discharge area which turns to be a key parameter for scaling laws for microdischarges. Measurements have been performed for electrode gaps between 20 and 500 micrometers and for two electrode diameters (2 mm i 4 mm). Apart from measurements of the current-voltage characteristics and breakdown voltages, experimental results have also been modeled. PIC/MCC simulations have revealed that the field emission effect should be taken into account for discharge gaps smaller than a few micrometers.
 
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Highlights of RF plasma and applications
Several RF plasma sources at atmospheric and low pressure were developed and diagnostics of those plasmas using mass spectrometry was performed. Besides mass spectrometry we have, also, used derivative probes, Langmuir probe and fast ICCD camera in order to study the physical processes that are important for different kinds of treatments. Knowing the composition of plasma, energies and fluxes of the particles that come to the surface of samples, optimization of the treatment parameters are crucial for application. At atmospheric pressures, non-thermal plasmas generated by plasma needle and micro atmospheric plasma jet are convenient for the treatment of samples that can not be placed at vacuum and are sensitive to temperature increase. Biological samples, tissues, cells and bacteria were treated. Effects like apoptosis and bloodless separation of tissue can be achieved. At low pressures, samples like seeds and textile were treated. Effects of faster mass gain of seeds and changing textile properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic can be seen after treatment by plasma. Our future work is focused at developing and studying new atmospheric plasma sources which could be used for in-vivo treatment of tissues.
 
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Highlights of transport theory and MC simulations
The progress and further improvement of modern technology associated with the non-equilibrium magnetized plasma discharges require the most accurate modeling of charged particle transport under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in neutral gases. In order to meet this demand, Dr Saša Dujko, Dr Zoran Raspopović, Dr Milovan Šuvakov and Dr Zoran Petrović have undertaken a program to understand the kinetic behavior of charged particle swarms under the combined action of electric and magnetic fields in neutral gases. The scope of this program has covered a variety of hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic studies of charged particle transport processes in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields when non-conservative collisions are operative. A Monte Carlo simulation technique adapted to consider both the time-dependent hydrodynamic and steady state non-hydrodynamic conditions has been developed. In the context of time-dependent studies, a multitude of kinetic phenomena were observed that are generally inexplicable through the use of steady-state dc transport theory. Phenomena of significant note include the existence of transient negative diffusivity, time-resolved negative differential conductivity and anomalous anisotropic diffusion. In the context of non-hydrodynamic kinetic theory, an investigation of the non-hydrodynamic phenomena associated with an idealized steadystate Townsend experiment for swarms in electric and magnetic field crossed at arbitrary angle has been carried out.
 
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Highlights of MC transport and collision data
We have obtained transport coefficients for electrons in mixtures of CF4 with radicals CF3, CF2, CF, F2 and F and for mixtures BF3/F2 AND BF3/F for conditions such as those found in plasma assisted technologies for semiconductor production. We used a two term numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation and we tested the accuracy of the results using a Monte Carlo simulation.
We have investigated the idea to use atmospheric fluorescence due to cosmic rays to detect very high energy elementary particles by modeling electron thermalization in pure nitrogen and air (N2/O2) with Monte Carlo technique for electron energies from 20 eV up to 10 keV. Spatially resolved emission is accounted for by counting number of specific emissions at pressures 1 Torr and 760 Torr.
Efforts were made to construct a database on the transport properties of electrons and ions in a number of atomic and molecular gases and their mixtures. Complete sets of data are determined for the following molecules and gas mixtures: HBr, BF3, N2O, HBr/Ar, N2O/N2, N2/Ar, while the C2H2F4 is work in progress. Concerning the negative ions, we have determined a set of cross-sections for Br-, F-, Cl-/He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and N2O in the N2O/N2 mixture.
The results were presented at many international conferences and were published or are in the process of publication in international journals as well as on the web page of the Data Centre (GELDC).
 
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Highlights of environmental studies
Our laboratory for environmental studies is local centre for physical monitoring, microanalysis and studies of air pollutants. The laboratory has connections to European air pollution monitoring and regional monitoring systems with special emphasis on the dynamics of pollutants in the Mediterranean region. Activities in the environmental physics field include fundamental and applied research related to atmospheric processes, transport and transformation of pollutants and their impact on environment. Special interest is focused to: particulate matter, remote sensing of the atmosphere, active biomonitoring, PTR mass spectrometry of air and Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry.
Read about Environmental Physics Laboratory activities >>>
Go directly to EPLab site >>>
 
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Events
Below are the details of upcoming exhibitions and conferences that we are attending or supporting, we would welcome the chance to meet you there, if you would like to book an appointment at any event please click here.

36th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Sofia, Bulgaria, June 29-July 3, 2009
24th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Cancún, México, July 12-17, 2009
19th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Bochum, Germany, July 26-31, 2009
25th International Workshop on Low Energy Positron and Positronium Physics & 26th International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, Toronto, Canada, July 29-August 1, 2009
2nd International Conference on Advanced Plasma Technologies & 1st International Plasma Nanoscience Symposium, Piran, Slovenia, September 29—October 2, 2009
62nd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA, October 20-23, 2009
51st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, Atlanta, GA, USA, November 2-6, 2009
3rd Workshop & Training Program in Low Cost Plasma Technology Applications, Cairo, Egypt, November 7-12, 2009
 
Latest news
June 2009
Prof. Zoran Petrovic took part at the Workshop on Plasma for Environmental Issues, a satellite meeting of the 36th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Sofia, Bulgaria
Read more >>>

Jovana Vranic defended her high school graduation paper on plasma physics done in our laboratory under title: Picturebook of plasma physics
Read more >>>

Dragana Maric (Research Associate) and Prof. Zoran Petrovic visited University of Ulster, Jordanstown, UK as a part of collaboration.
Read more >>>

Prof. Zoran Petrovic participated the 1st ICPC NanoNet Workshop in Prague, Czech Republic.
Read more >>>

May 2009
Prof. Zoran Petrovic took part at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
Read more >>>

Marija Radmilovic-Radjenovic (Senior Research Associate) participated Workshop on Radio-Frequency Discharges in La Badine - Presqu'île de Giens, France.
Read more >>>

Seminars:
Marija Radmilovic-Radjenovic: Modeling of a RF breakdown phenomenon
Read more >>>

April 2009
LGE group members participated the 7th EU-Japan Joint Symposium on Plasma Processing in Liblice, Czech Republic.
Read more >>>

Seminars:
Sasa Lazovic: RF discharges
Read more >>>

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Proceedings of the Second workshop on nonequilibrium processes, Belgrade and Novi Sad, Serbia, 2008
Read more >>>

Proceedings of the 24th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases, Novi Sad, Serbia, 2008
Read more >>>
March 2009
Prof. Zoran Petrovic participated Fundamentals and Applications of Microplasmas Conference in San Diego, California, USA.
Read more >>>

Lectures on a master course 'Collisions and transport processes in ionized gases' of School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade have started at the Institute of Physics.
Read more >>>

Technicians from Hiden and Rydiant Dyes performed scheduled maintenance of laboratory equipment purchased from their companies.

Ana Bankovic (Research Trainee) was a guest student at Australian National University in Canberra.

Seminars:
Andreja Stojic: PTR Mass Spectrometry - capabillity and applications
Marija Radmilovic-Radjenovic: Determination of the drift velocity
Read more >>>

February 2009
Prof. Bill Graham from Queen's University Belfast visited COE and gave lecture 'Electronegative plasmas - the pluses and minuses'.
Read more >>>

Presentation of LIDAR system was broadcasted in the scientific programme on national TV station RTS2

January 2009
Work on several graduation papers has successfully been competed recently at LGE.

Representatives of the World Bank from Washington visited Institute of Physics and COE.



New PhD students in our Laboratory: Dejan Maletic, Marija Savic and Srdjan Marjanovic (from left).



Gaseous Electronics Laboratory Data Centre (GELDC) - collection, compilation, evaluation and dissemination of collision and transport data of charged particles in neutral gases



Published Books

Proceedings of the 5th EU-Japan Symposium on Plasma Processing, Belgrade, Serbia, 2007
Read more >>>

Proceedings of the First Workshop on nonequilibrium processes, Kopaonik, Serbia, 2006
Read more >>>

Plasma Electronics: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication
Read more >>>

Introductory transport theory for charged particles in gases
Read more >>>


Previous issues

Check previous issues of the eNotes:

Issue 1 >>>

Issue 2 >>>

Issue 3 >>>

FP6 Project, IPB-CNP-026328, Centre for Non Equlibrium Processes, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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June 2009
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